The first published work on a double-entry bookkeeping system was the Summa de arithmetica, published in Italy in 1494 by Luca Pacioli (the "Father of Accounting"). Accounting began to transition into an organized profession in the nineteenth century, with local professional bodies in England merging to form the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales in 1880.
Tax planning is the analysis of a financial situation or plan from a tax perspective. The purpose of tax planning is to ensure tax efficiency. Through tax planning, all elements of the financial plan work together in the most tax-efficient manner possible. Tax planning is an essential part of an individual investor's financial plan. Reduction of tax liability and maximizing the ability to contribute to retirement plans are crucial for success.
Financial accounting is the branch of corporate accounting that identifies, records, and analyzes financial information for people outside of the company (such as investors). Information provided by financial accounting includes quarterly and annual income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements, and statements of retained earnings. The standards of financial accounting differ whether under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in the U.S. or the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).
Recent Examples on the Web That includes more than 360 different ESG accounting standards. — The Economist, "In the soup The proliferation of sustainability accounting standards comes with costs," 3 Oct. 2020 The tax returns pointed to a curious, and potentially criminal, bit of accounting sleight of hand that roped in what matters most to Trump: Ivanka. — Casey Michel, The New Republic, "Ivanka Trump’s Starring Role in Her Father’s Financial Troubles," 30 Sep. 2020 Bloomberg reported earlier this month that the watchdog was considering an accounting probe. — Stephan Kahl, Bloomberg.com, "German Regulator to Probe Grenke Accounting as Scrutiny Widens," 30 Sep. 2020 If the New York Times’ accounting is correct, Trump has paid little (or nothing) in income taxes for a long time. — Jonah Goldberg Tribune News Service (tns), Star Tribune, "Trump isn't unpatriotic because of tax avoidance — just a lousy businessman," 30 Sep. 2020 If Trump's tax situation was triggered by huge business losses, accounting experts agree that the tax system rightly enables a business to deduct appropriate losses. — Susan Tompor, Detroit Free Press, "Donald Trump's tax returns have many wondering what they're doing wrong," 29 Sep. 2020 But only one area of that farmhouse had remained untouched - a crawl space inside the president’s office where accounting records are kept, said employee Vanessa Close. — Esther Mobley, SFChronicle.com, "2020's fire damage to Napa wineries already far exceeds 2017, and it may not be done," 29 Sep. 2020 Her most recent project has been updating the city’s accounting system over the last year. — Alyssa Alfano, cleveland, "Medina’s Spring Grove Cemetery seeks to become arboretum," 29 Sep. 2020 The World Economic Forum, working with the Big Four accounting firms, recently published a new report that seeks to standardize stakeholder capitalism reporting on environment, social, and governance goals. — Aric Jenkins, Fortune, "Are you ready for a stakeholder driven world?," 28 Sep. 2020
Managerial accounting uses much of the same data as financial accounting, but it organizes and utilizes information in different ways. Namely, in managerial accounting, an accountant generates monthly or quarterly reports that a business's management team can use to make decisions about how the business operates. Managerial accounting also encompasses many other facets of accounting, including budgeting, forecasting and various financial analysis tools. Essentially, any information that may be useful to management falls underneath this umbrella.