By 1880, the modern profession of accounting was fully formed and recognized by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales. This institute created many of the systems by which accountants practice today. The formation of the institute occurred in large part due to the Industrial Revolution. Merchants not only needed to track their records but sought to avoid bankruptcy as well.
Periodic Planning – Tax planning can either be of short or longer period of time, if done for less than 12 months, is known as shorter period planning, whereas planning done for more than 12 months is known as longer period planning. For example, there are short term and long-term capital gains taxes depending upon the holding period of assets/investments.
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I used Mark Fuqua for tax preparation services. I am self-employed and Mark used mileage deductions, Office in the Home deductions, etc. in addition to regular business deductions to help reduce my taxes. He checked my accounting and found mistakes that benefited me and taught me how to keep better records and how to record my transactions properly. He travels to my office which is included in his charges which are very reasonable....a lot cheaper than a firm like H&R Block which makes you bring everything in to them. I plan on letting Mark help me set up a limited liability company and having him do the corporate return and do payroll for that company. I am very satisfied with his services.
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There is a sort of distrust between the tax authorities on one side and business or professional community on the other. The income tax department thinks that the taxpayers sometimes are unable to distinguish between tax planning and tax evasion/avoidance and misinterpret tax laws as intended by the government, whereas the taxpayers think that their money is not being spent appropriately on infrastructure development and sanitation.

Most minor children don't have to file taxes at all, but if they have income from a job or from investments held in their name, then it's possible that they will need to file. If so, they typically aren't allowed to claim the full standard deduction. Instead, they're subject to reduced standard deductions. For them, a standard deduction of at least $1,100 is available. Those who have earned income from a job or other source get a standard deduction of at least their total earned income plus $350 more, until that amount rises above the regular standard deduction shown in the table above. These numbers are the same for 2020 as they were in 2019.

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Accounting research is carried out both by academic researchers and practicing accountants. Methodologies in academic accounting research include archival research, which examines "objective data collected from repositories"; experimental research, which examines data "the researcher gathered by administering treatments to subjects"; analytical research, which is "based on the act of formally modeling theories or substantiating ideas in mathematical terms"; interpretive research, which emphasizes the role of language, interpretation and understanding in accounting practice, "highlighting the symbolic structures and taken-for-granted themes which pattern the world in distinct ways"; critical research, which emphasizes the role of power and conflict in accounting practice; case studies; computer simulation; and field research.[66][67]
Even though accounting has existed in various forms and levels of sophistication throughout many human societies, and the double-entry accounting system in use today was developed in medieval Europe, particularly in Venice, and is usually attributed to the Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli.[9] Today, accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are usually audited by accounting firms,[10] and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).[7] GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the United States[1] and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom. As of 2012, "all major economies" have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).[11]
The fifth principle of accounting is the principle of objectivity. Objectivity means that accounts are backed up by evidence (e.g. sales receipts, invoices, purchase orders). The medical equipment manufacturer follows the standard of objectivity by maintaining copies of sales orders while the hospital maintains objectivity by providing their accountant with receipts for the purchase.
The history of accounting has been around almost as long as money itself. Accounting history dates back to ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Babylon. For example, during the Roman Empire the government had detailed records of their finances. However, modern accounting as a profession has only been around since the early 19th century.