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Even though accounting has existed in various forms and levels of sophistication throughout many human societies, and the double-entry accounting system in use today was developed in medieval Europe, particularly in Venice, and is usually attributed to the Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli.[9] Today, accounting is facilitated by accounting organizations such as standard-setters, accounting firms and professional bodies. Financial statements are usually audited by accounting firms,[10] and are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).[7] GAAP is set by various standard-setting organizations such as the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) in the United States[1] and the Financial Reporting Council in the United Kingdom. As of 2012, "all major economies" have plans to converge towards or adopt the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).[11]
For the salaried class of taxpayers, the responsibility of correct deduction of tax at source is thrown on employers. While in the case of a business or profession, they are responsible for declaring correct income. So, an employee may hide his other income and not declare to his employer in order to avoid taxes, and business owners also claim excess expense claims and deductions to reduce their tax burden. So in these cases, it takes backstage, and tax evasion/avoidance takes center stage.
Collecting money in person (at a storefront, marketplace, etc.) can get pricey. Between equipment, credit card fees, and handling physical cash, it can be a hassle. Thankfully, Square and PayPal make it easy to accept card payments using your smartphone or tablet. These programs also send your customers receipts, reconcile your transactions, and handle returns if necessary.
Before you hire a tax professional, visit their business profile to see how they handle payments. Many CPAs and tax experts accept digital payments through Venmo, PayPal, Square Cash, Zelle and other online platforms. More businesses may be changing their payment methods to accommodate social distancing. Check with your tax preparer to see how they handle payments. 
TurboTax Help and Support: Access to a TurboTax specialist is included with TurboTax Deluxe, Premier, Self-Employed and TurboTax Live; not included with Free Edition (but is available as an upgrade). TurboTax specialists are available to provide general customer help and support using the TurboTax product. SmartLook on-screen help is available on a PC, laptop or the TurboTax mobile app. Service, area of expertise, experience levels, wait times, hours of operation and availability vary, and are subject to restriction and change without notice.

You’ll have to use the money during the calendar year for medical and dental expenses, but you can also use it for related everyday items such as bandages, pregnancy test kits, breast pumps and acupuncture for yourself and your qualified dependents. You may lose what you don’t use, so take time to calculate your expected medical and dental expenses for the coming year.
There are tax credits for college expenses, for saving for retirement, for adopting children, and for childcare expenses, you might pay so you can go to work. The Child Tax Credit is worth up to $2,000 for each of your children under age 17 subject to income restrictions, and the Earned Income Credit (EITC) can put some money back into the pockets of lower-income taxpayers. 
Tax planning is the analysis of a financial situation or plan from a tax perspective. The purpose of tax planning is to ensure tax efficiency. Through tax planning, all elements of the financial plan work together in the most tax-efficient manner possible. Tax planning is an essential part of an individual investor's financial plan. Reduction of tax liability and maximizing the ability to contribute to retirement plans are crucial for success.
In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history, the Enron scandal undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure.[73] It involved a financial scandal of Enron Corporation and their auditors Arthur Andersen, which was revealed in late 2001. The scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world. After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures conducted throughout the 1990s, Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December 2001.[74]
Your AGI is your income from all sources plus and/or minus any adjustments to income you might qualify for. Adjustments can increase or decrease income, depending on the type of adjustment. They are not the same as deductions, so you don't have to itemize to claim them. Instead, you take them on Schedule 1 of your 1040, and the total of Schedule 1 can reduce—or even increase your adjusted gross income.

Tax planning is the analysis of a financial situation or plan from a tax perspective. The purpose of tax planning is to ensure tax efficiency. Through tax planning, all elements of the financial plan work together in the most tax-efficient manner possible. Tax planning is an essential part of an individual investor's financial plan. Reduction of tax liability and maximizing the ability to contribute to retirement plans are crucial for success.
Periodic Planning – Tax planning can either be of short or longer period of time, if done for less than 12 months, is known as shorter period planning, whereas planning done for more than 12 months is known as longer period planning. For example, there are short term and long-term capital gains taxes depending upon the holding period of assets/investments.
It was a pleasure to work with Daphene on my taxes this year. Not only were we able to complete my taxes the same day that I got in contact with her, she also taught me a lot about accounting and taxes in general. As a novice when it comes to preparing tax, Daphene walked me through each part of the tax return, taking her time to explain what each part meant, and answering every single question that I had for her. Even after the preparation concluded, Daphene still reached out to me to let me know that she would be of service if I ever had questions, and continuously updated me with the status of my return. She's definitely a pro who I intend on going back to next year. I HIGHLY recommend her!
Coverdell ESAs have similar features to 529 plans, offering tax-free growth on investments toward educational costs. However, Coverdells have advantages and disadvantages compared to 529 plans. You're free to invest Coverdell money in nearly any type of investment you want, but annual contributions are limited to $2,000. Moreover, income limits of $95,000 to $110,000 for single filers and $190,000 to $220,000 for joint filers apply to reduce or eliminate the ability to make Coverdell contributions.

Empirical studies document that leading accounting journals publish in total fewer research articles than comparable journals in economics and other business disciplines,[68] and consequently, accounting scholars[69] are relatively less successful in academic publishing than their business school peers.[70] Due to different publication rates between accounting and other business disciplines, a recent study based on academic author rankings concludes that the competitive value of a single publication in a top-ranked journal is highest in accounting and lowest in marketing.[71]


In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history, the Enron scandal undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure.[73] It involved a financial scandal of Enron Corporation and their auditors Arthur Andersen, which was revealed in late 2001. The scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world. After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures conducted throughout the 1990s, Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December 2001.[74]
401(k) contribution limits are rising in 2020. Those younger than 50 can contribute up to $19,500 toward a 401(k) or similar plan in 2020, up $500 from last year's $19,000. Those 50 or older get to put up to $26,000 into a 401(k), up $1,000. With no income limits applying to 401(k)s, those whose employers offer these plans can save a lot toward retirement.
Any individual with a preparer tax identification number (PTIN) is eligible to file your income taxes on your behalf. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean they will be the best candidate to provide the help you need with your income tax preparation. The IRS explains that CPAs, attorneys and enrolled agents are all allowed to legally represent their clients before the IRS. They have a more thorough understanding of tax code than an individual operating solely with a PTIN or an Annual Filing Season Program participant who provides their services on a volunteer basis. Consider the complexity of your tax return and what level of expertise you’ll require. Before entrusting someone with your private financial and personal information, do some research on their qualifications. The IRS has a searchable database where you can verify the background and credentials of your income tax preparation professional. Once you have selected someone, ask about their service fees and confirm their availability. Then provide them with all the documentation they require, including W-2s, 1099s and more. Always ask to review the paperwork before it is submitted, and never sign a blank tax return.
Financial accounting follows the rules established by FASB for companies in the US under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). In addition, public companies must comply with requirements set by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). Since it is shared solely with internal stakeholders, managerial accounting has more flexibility in its approach to accounting compliance and standards. Reports can be tailored to the needs of managers.
Health savings accounts are available to those who have high-deductible health insurance coverage and who want to set money aside to cover healthcare costs. Contribution amounts of up to $3,550 for those with self-only policies or $7,100 for family policies apply in 2020, with minimum annual deductibles of $1,400 or $2,800 respectively required to qualify for high-deductible health plan status. Catch-up contributions of $1,000 are available if you're 55 or older, but a qualifying plan must have maximum out-of-pocket expenses of $6,900 for self-only policies or $13,800 for family coverage.
Audit Support Guarantee: If you received an audit letter based on your 2019 TurboTax return, we will provide one-on-one support with a tax professional as requested through our Audit Support Center. If we are not able to connect you to one of our tax professionals, we will refund the applicable TurboTax federal and/or state purchase price paid. TurboTax Free Edition customers are entitled to payment of $30. We will not represent you or provide legal advice. Excludes TurboTax Business.
Try for Free/Pay When You File: TurboTax online and mobile pricing is based on your tax situation and varies by product. $0 federal (for simple tax returns) + $0 state + $0 to file offer only available with TurboTax Free Edition; offer may change or end at any time without notice. Actual prices are determined at the time of print or e-file and are subject to change without notice. Savings and price comparisons based on anticipated price increase. Special discount offers may not be valid for mobile in-app purchases.
Navigating through all the details involved with tax preparation can be a difficult task for any business owner. Ease your tax burden with the help of a professional throughout the year. Franklin P. Sparkman can help businesses minimize their tax liability while also deferring expenses and income that could enable business to pay less in taxes. A reduction in annual income taxes is also a positive for any business as Franklin P. Sparkman continues to assist the following businesses:
For example, if an investor in a 25% tax bracket had $10,000 in long-term capital gains, there would be a tax liability of $1,500. If the same investor sold underperforming investments carrying $10,000 in long-term capital losses, the losses would offset the gains, resulting in a tax liability of 0. If the same losing investment were brought back, then a minimum of 30 days would have to pass to avoid incurring a wash sale. 
2020 could be a momentous year for many reasons. But if you're trying to do tax planning for 2020, it doesn't look like this year is going to bring much in the way of massive changes to tax laws. No matter what happens in the 2020 elections, any changes in the White House or control of Congress won't take effect until 2021, and so this year is likely to continue the gridlock that has kept current tax laws largely unchanged since 2018's tax reform efforts.

The earned income tax credit gives sizable reductions in taxes to workers with low- or mid-level incomes. The credit amount varies by family size and income, with maximums of $6,660 for those with three or more children, $5,920 for those with two children, $3,584 for those with one child, or $538 for those with no children. The income limits below indicate which taxpayers are eligible for at least some of the earned income credit, but bear in mind that the top credit amount phases out gradually over a large portion of the income range.


Goodwill is an intangible asset that arises when one company purchases another for an amount greater than the value of its assets acquired after accounting for the liabilities assumed. Examples of goodwill include an outstanding management team or a reputation for exceptional customer service. These things are by nature nearly impossible to quantify, though through the acquisition process it is possible to put a monetary value on them by considering the true value of the company including all tangible assets and net of any liabilities.

The history of accounting has been around almost as long as money itself. Accounting history dates back to ancient civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Babylon. For example, during the Roman Empire the government had detailed records of their finances. However, modern accounting as a profession has only been around since the early 19th century.

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